I realise I should have done this entry a little sooner, but as everyone should be well aware of by now, I am lazy. Also I moved to Cape Town just after ZaCon V which proved rather time consuming! Please note this is gonna be a first of 2 big entries on them so if you don’t like reading, pull up now.
One of the highlights of the annual Las Vegas pilgrimage for me has always been the electronic badges, whether it’s for defcon, ninja networks or custom badges that people have built for their hackerspaces. I especially enjoy the ones that are a little more complex (more than just lights) and are hackable. I have always been in awe of security researchers such as Adam Laurie, Zak Franken, Michael Ossman, At1as and the other hardware hackers.
For ZaCon V ( www.zacon.org.za ) I built some electronic badges for the conference that are based on an Arduino framework (at least using an ATMega328 with an Arduino Bootloader) and communicate to each other via 433Mhz RF (the same that is used in remotes). The idea with the badges was to have a way to see who was interacting with whom and show it in a visual representation (Maltego — yes yes, man with a hammer etc). Additionally I needed the badges to be cheap as.. well… I am cheap :)
The badges took about 3 months to go from breadboard to finished and a large majority of that time was spent learning how electronics work (and don’t!). This however was not my first attempt at building badges, for the last 3 years I have built a design on a breadboard and then basically done nothing with it (apart from make a shakey cam video at 3am and suggest the idea).
A lot of the design actually came from me wondering around hobbyist electronic stores on the internet and coming across two really cool things namely, very cheap communication in the form of 433mhz RF chips and Nokia 5110 LCDs (also cheap :P ).
I ordered a few of the screens and RF kits and started tinkering- having a display connected to my Arduino brought all kinds of warm and fuzzy feelings. Next I started playing with the 433Mhz, originally thinking that the badges would only receive a simple message, something like who was currently speaking, from a PC near the stage. Roelof looked at it and suggested that this idea was boring and if I really wanted to do something cool I should make all the badges talk to each other. And so the tinkering began.
For those people that missed the friday night the code and slides are here:
Ever since I first saw something Joe Grand, Adam Laurie or the Ninja networks team built I have loved the idea of having hackable electronics. So much that every year before ZaCon I foam at the mouth, put on my prettiest big boy pants and get out my Arduino in a vain attempt to make an electronic badge.
…However every year all I end up with is a terrible video and a realization that electronics are not that cheap. Additionally I also find I have little to no knowledge on how to take anything off the Arduino dev board. This year however I finally built a badge. Its the first PCB I’ve ever made and its not on an Arduino dev board! I am generally surprised they boot up! The badges this year will look as follows:
Down to the nitty gritty I guess. The badges consist of the following:
* ATMEGA328 (aka, the chip in your Arduino) – in an IC socket
* 433Mhz RF receiver (yes, the same as cars/garages)
* 433Mhz RF transmitter
* Nokia 5110 LCD
* RGB LED
* ICSP headers
* 4x Push buttons
The badges work on the principle of hybrid-mesh-stuxnet-SCADA-badbios-in-the-cloud communication… no but really this is how it works:
1. Each badge has a particular number (organised by status)
2. At a random interval it will transmit its badge number
3. While NOT transmitting badges will ‘listen’ for any other message data
4. If message data is decoded to one of a few types the LED will flash (this may change depending on battery life). Primary types are relationships and badge number transmissions
5. If a badge ‘hears’ another badges number it means it must be close enough for you to be talking and adds it to your ‘friends’ list (EEPROM)
6. When a badge transmits its number it ALSO transmits 1 of the last 5 ‘friends’ that it has seen (a relationship)
7. If a badge ‘hears’ a relationship message it stores it in a 5 relationship wide array
8. When a badge transmits its number and a friends (see 6) it has it will ALSO transmit 1 of the last 5 relationships it has ‘heard’
What this basically means is that if Luke and Annie are talking in the corner too far away from a receiver, but Leia is standing in between them and the receiver. Leia’s badge can tell the receiver that Luke and Annie are talking :)
The badges should be relatively easy to hack and hopefully will be a nice opening for people who want to start. As the badges are based on the Arduino you can literally pull out the chip from the back of the badge, plug it into your Arduino and upload code to it. For those who want to get wirey, you can simply connect your Arduino directly up to the ICSP headers and upload your code to the badge.
ICSP pins are as follows (looking at the front of the badge – with the screen – and the ICSP pins on the right) from top to bottom:
1. Digital 12 ( MISO )
3. Digital 13 ( SCK )
6. Digital 11 ( MOSI )
Additionally at the top of the board there are also the digital pins 0,1,2 that can be used for doing anything arduino-y. The LCD uses digital pins 8,9,10,11,12. RF TX uses digital pin 7 and RF RX uses digital pin 6. The buttons use A1,A2,A3,A4. Digital Pins 3,4,5 are all used for the RGB LED. And thats the lot of them. Of course you can simply use these for other things, just remember what they are connected to.
Here is the very first speaker badge:
Here is a REALLY short video of 5 black badges ‘talking’ to each other (blue LEDs indicate messages received).
Their arent enough badges for everyone, naturally speakers get for adding research and putting in the time and effort required for a great talk. Everyone one else should sign up to the mailing list as we will be announcing how you can get a badge (hint: http://zacon.org.za/mail.html).
There are 40 attendee badges and 20 build-your-own-boards for people who want to go the extra mile and solder their badge together (The badges are simple enough that even a first time solderererer should be able to do it! – and we will be there to help)
The badge talk will be on the Friday night before ZaCon (aka ZaCon Nights), so if you are interested in them keep the friday open!
Honestly I can’t thank the people that supported this project enough, from giving money so we can have badges to suggestions and ideas. Special shouts go to Jameel Haffejee (@RC1140) and Roelof Temmingh!
(ASCII FLAMES HERE)
It has been absolutely ages since I have written a blog post – genuinely I really havent simply been slacking off, i’ve just been busy! Anyway, figured it was time to do a writeup on some stuff I have been working on. (Please note this is almost the exact same post from the Paterva blog).
Predominately I want to show you some of the work we had to do for Blackhat 2013 – my first BH talk ever! My section of the work was what we ended up calling ‘KingPhisher’ as well as the multi-threaded Python script to crawl websites for some parts of ‘Teeth’ (Roelof’s offensive Maltego transforms).
A common Paterva office treat is that if you make a mistake or if the other person can catch you out at anything you have to make tea (the amount of times I make tea is inversely proportional to how long I have been at Paterva!). This included phishing. Many years ago we would try trick each other into clicking on links. Most security people will agree with us when we say that if you have enough context on a person you can craft an email and include a link on which they *will* click. Additionally we have used Maltego to gain context on people for a while, specifically using social networks (including transforms provided commercially via the SocialNet package). We also accept that there are certain types of mail we seldomly check (in terms of headers/other), we have been semi-programmed by automatic spam filtering and anti-virus to notify us if something is bad. Bottom line — we don’t inspect every link on every mail and we doubt if you do too.
So with this in mind we decided to integrate the two sides – 1) targeted phishing attacks and 2) information gathering in Maltego.
I really should have written this after ZaCon (november last year), but I’m lazy. However I have been asked to give a brief overview of the same talk at ITWeb this year so I figure I may as well finish this article and get it out :P
So in the first blog post I discussed the basics of Magnetic stripes and how the tech works. I like it because its fundamentally simple (perhaps like myself ;).
This entry is going to cover spoofing, from building a spoofer to having something read the entries. Ideally you want to have a magreader at this stage, either one of the nifty USB ones that act as an HID device or one that you built that can read the tracks you are interested in. Below is a cheap TTL reader I got (cost about R150, thats ~$20):
This is really just so that you can “listen” to what your spoofer can generate. Magnetic stripe spoofers have been done all over the place, so please don’t think I did this, you can see some great examples HERE and HERE. Essentially however the system is dead simple, you have the ‘sound’ that you wish to play (as discussed previously), an amplifier that can crank up the volume to the level that its going to get picked up and an electromagnet (it sounds fancy, its just wire coiled around a piece of metal – more later).
Its taken a lot of motivation to start writing this, and I hope its okay, I have a mental block that I need to write this and the second post about magstripes before moving on to some new things with my plants I want to try.
My friend Roelof Temmingh (@Roeloftemmingh) made this cool video for my talk, check it out below or at http://vimeo.com/51228567. Please note we had permission to test out the door at Senseposts’ old office :)
I see I haven’t update this blog in ages, I’d love to say I didn’t have enough time, but it was mostly just me being.. well lazy.
Zacon IV was on the 27th of October ( http://www.zacon.org.za/about.html ) and was really great, had a super time and met some great people. My talk covered a bunch of the stuff I did on the blog and essentially these sections:
* Lockpicking (briefly)
* Magstripes (reading + spoofing)
* RTLSDR (listening to guards)
* RFID (proxmark – bypassing LF EM4x door locks)
* RFCat (spoofing remotes)
It went relatively well apart from a few small demo problems (such as not being able to spoof a magnetic stripe – turned the volume down by mistake when I tried to show it! *doh*). The video of the talk can be seen here:
Previously I discussed using my RTL-SDR to merely listen for analog audio signals. In this entry I’ll discuss using it to decode digital signals (this example on fixed remote signals often used for garages / gates ) so that they can be replayed/brute forced with something like the RFCat project (based on TI’s CC1111EMK module). This has probably been done to death already but I figured since I struggled with it maybe this will help someone else do it a lot quicker (and mostly cause I think its cool).
The basic components are:
* RTL-SDR on a windows machine with the HDSDR application installed (really easy to use — saves me doing hard work)
* Audio application to look at demodulated stream (I like the open-source project Audacity )
* RFcat under linux for easy transmission of data – find more about RFcat at http://code.google.com/p/rfcat/
Then there are 3 basic steps to a replay/bruteforce attack:
* Capture Signal: Figure out what frequency it is on, figure out what modulation is used
* Decode Captured Signal: Decode the signal to data you can work with so you can replay it and if possible brute force similar ones
* Transmit Signal: Send off your data for epic-winness (okay its not that complex, but it still feels cool)
I am going to assume at this stage that you have access to the remote (otherwise it may be illegal, I think.. lets just go with that). The easiest thing to do firstly is try and identify your remote, here is my garage remote for the complex that I live in (with many garages all of the same type):
This is just an update on the Arduino watering system, everything seems to be going well whilst I am away (I am away for ~a month, till the end of Blackhat / Defcon). In winter the plants don’t require nearly as much water and it seems that after 8 days the water level has dropped only 11.5cm in a reservoir ( read orange bucket ) that is about 60cm across. The orange container is smaller at the bottom, probably around 45cm so an guestimated average of say 50cm for the diameter.
At this stage I was going to do the math to work out how much water had be consumed minus that of evaporation, but I’m too lazy right now.
At this rate that container should keep the 4 plants near it (tomato, chilli, orange, peppers) as well as the palm and the 2 trays as well as the random flower going for about 6 weeks!
A few weeks ago (I’ve been meaning to do this post for ages, few weeks ago is give or take 2 months) there was a post on reddit regarding a new software defined radio that cost around $20. After reading a few topics on the discussion (now all avail at http://www.reddit.com/r/RTLSDR now http://rtlsdr.reddit.com) my interest was peaked. RF was a whole new world of WTF for me. I think it offers the same awe and wonder that I had putting a tape into my very first tape into my vomit brown fischer-price tape player:
The basic gist of how it all works is as follows:
* There is a common chip found in video cards known as an RTL2832U
* This chip is commonly used for specific frequencies used for Television signals (and then software decodes this so you could watch TV on your pc)
* A bunch of cool guys ™ found a way to read the data coming into the card directly with drivers
* These cards also offered some tuners that allowed tuning beyond the basic TV ranges
So there are 2 basic sections:
* RTL2832U chips – reading data
* Tuner (E4K,other) – allows changing frequencies to various ranges
With such I started hunting around in Centurion for a Video card that had these options, after phoning a few places (read 5/6) I eventually found a TV card known as a Compro VisionMate U650F. It costs around R250 from pcpalace in centurion which offers a RTL2832U as well as the E4K tuner (the best one at this stage). *update* the cheaper visionmates (without remote) go for about R100 less than this!
* I can tune to frequencies from around 55MHz to 1800Mhz
* For R250!
This was super, ordered my card and a few days later it arrived!
Following some _really_ easy guides for installing a few tools in windows:
* HDSDR, WRPlus, ExtIO, zadig ( http://spench.net/ has all the info but at time of writing was having some issues, try one of these: http://rtlsdr.org/ http://rtlsdr.reddit.com)
And on linux:
* GnuRadio (install guide: http://gnuradio.org/redmine/projects/gnuradio/wiki/InstallingGR)
Off the bat I loaded up HDSDR (after all the config and setup – zadig for drivers, extIO copied) and immediately got that sinking feeling of ‘I know absolutely nothing’:
So its been nearly a month since I last put a blog post up and I have been working on some stuff in my free time between work (been traveling to the US and took a weekend off to visit some friends in Canada). I’m not particularly in the mood to write a new post, but you know how it is, if I don’t start writing it I’ll never get round to it.
Essentially I have always been fascinated by the idea of being able to ‘hack’ with/into physical things, whether it be the Arduino and my watering system (btw you can see those stats at http://andrewmohawk.dyndns.org/AWS/), changing data on RFID cards or being that sneaky kid jackpotting ATM machines.
I started looking at magnetic stripes, mostly because they are *everywhere*, from bank cards, customer loyalty and even parking systems.
The basic gist of the system is that there are many tiny magnets or magnetic particles (usually iron oxide) which are magnetized in a specific manner within a magstripe. Essentially you take the card (or think of it as many magnets) and put it next to a magnetic reader (card reader) which then reads the fields. These fields are then taken to good ol 1′s and 0′s and used within backend systems after a bit of decoding.
The magnetic stripe on a card is actually made up of 3 different ‘stripes’ or tracks (usually - different types of cards will have a different number of tracks), right above each other. Each of these tracks can hold different amounts of data and for the basic breakdown you can read up about em at http://www.gae.ucm.es/~padilla/extrawork/tracks.html and http://www.ded.co.uk/magnetic-stripe-card-standards/
TL;DR – Track 2/3 = Numbers, Track1 = UPPERCASE,numbers
Read more »
- ZaCon V Badge [1/2]: Build Time
- ZaCon V: Badge Sneak Peak *update*
- Kingphisher: Semi-automated phishing
- Magnetic Stripes: Part 2 (Attacking)
- Bypassing LF Entry Systems
Not the quickest of cats
on the best of days.
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